We speak about infertility when a woman does not conceive after approx. 1 - 1.5 years of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. To treat this disease it is necessary for the couple to undergo tests which reveal the cause of infertility. The cause is approx. in 45 % only on woman´s side, in 45 % only on man´s side and approx. in 25 % it is a combination of male and female factor. . In 10 % it is so called idiopathic infertility when we cannot find a cause of infertility by means of current methods. If you have also been trying to conceive for a longer time - and so far not successfully - inform your gynaecologist and contact an expert who deals with a diagnosis and infertility treatment. Within a very short time based on various tests an expert is able to diagnose a cause of infertility and offer a solution.
Judging male infertility is much easier and less time consuming, therefore, this is the first step we take while looking for causes of infertility. The most important is a semen analysis - seminogram which evaluates sperm quantity, motility and morphology. By means of new methods we can also identify fertilization potential of spermatozoa. All these parametres fluctuate even in a normally fertile man, therefore, 1-2 sperm tests should be carried out. The most common causes of male infertility are a reduced number of sperms, their lower motility or shape abnormalities, eventually, sperm agglutination which is caused by the presence of antibodies counteracting their own sperms. In certain percentage of cases azoospermia appears, i. e. a condition when there is no spermatozoa present in ejaculate or it is dead (necrospermia).
Please, remember that for up-to-date evaluation of spermatozoa it is necessary to abstain from sex for 3 - 5 days. The quality of ejaculate can be influenced by many factors, such as illness, stress, physical load.
Female infertility – female sterility
The examination of women is more complicated and time consuming considering the fact that there are many levels where female fertility can be affected. To give insight into this issue it is necessary to show at least the basic scheme of the function of female genital tract and fertilization process. In the brain there is an endocrine gland called the pituitary gland. Under the influence of the central nervous system it secretes hormones which affect ovaries. During every menstrual cycle in the right or left ovary a female germ cell - egg (oocyte) - ripens and is released. It is stopped by the fallopian tube. Here it encounters sperms and is fertilized by one of them. The fertilized egg is then split into many cells. The formed embryo gets in the uterus where it embeds in the prepared endometrium and here the development of the foetus - baby - starts. On all these levels the fertilization ability can be disrupted.
Basic causes of female infertility
Disrupted function of fallopian tubes (tubal factor) when for various reasons (severe gynaecological inflammation, endometriosis) the fallopian tube is not patent the encounter of an ovum and a sperm are anatomically impossible. It includes women who have undergone an ectopic pregnancy and one or both of the fallopian tubes have been removed.
Insufficient function of ovaries (ovarian factor) when the ovaries do not mature follicles and therefore an ovum is not released (ovulation).
Endometriosis - a serious disease where the tissues of endometrium grow outside the uterine cavity.
Immunological factor - production of anti-sperm antibodies or production of other antibodies preventing from fertilization or embryo implantation.